The prospect of Turkey joining the EU has brought to light the depth of the rift concerning the issue of Europe’s identity. Is this identity based on common cultural characteristics? If so, are they defined once and for all by history or does history continuously evolve? These questions determine to a great extent the opinion of each of us regarding Turkey’s inclusion in the EU.The other possible way of defining Europe’s identity puts the citizen’s identity to the fore, respecting the major political and social principles. This identity is not fixed in history. Because of its ultimate non-determination, it is the basis of a political society constructed on democratic foundations. The expansion of Europe towards Turkey and the other new members can only lead to the reinforcement of a social democracy if this second definition of its identity takes precedence over the first one.